Lok Sabha journey of AIADMK from 1 seat to 37
New Delhi, Feb 23: The All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK), a breakaway faction of the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK), started its Lok Sabha journey with one seat in 1973 and has reached up to 37 seats in 2014.
The AIADMK is a Dravidian party founded by M. G. Ramachandran (MGR) on 17 October 17, 1972, in Tamil Nadu, which has 39 Lok Sabha seats.
At the time of its inception, the party's name was Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam and All India was later prefixed.
The AIADMK had tasted first Lok Sabha victory just after its formation. MGR made noted lawyer K. Maya Thevar AIADMK candidate for Dindigul Parliamentary seat in 1973 by-election, who became victorious.
It was also the first Dravidian party to become part of the Union Government.
In 1979, two AIADMK MP's, Sathyavani Muthu and Aravinda Bala Pajanor, joined the short-lived Choudhary Charan Singh government. However, the two AIADMK MPs couldn't attend the Lok Sabha as Ministers because the lower house never met during Charan Singh's term as Prime Minister.
The day before the Lok Sabha was due to meet for the first time, Choudhary Charan Singh resigned because he could not arrange the numbers to prove majority on the floor of the House.
When the General Elections were announced after Emergency in 1977 then the AIADMK joined hands with Congress. Due to the corruption charges against DMK's Karunanidhi government in Tamil Nadu, Congress-Left-AIADMK alliance swept the elections bagging 34 out of 39 seats in the state. The AIADMK bagged 17 seats.
Though MGR joined hands with Indira Gandhi in 1977 General Elections, he extended unconditional support to the Janata party Government. He continued his support to the Charan Singh Government in 1979.
Political analysts say that MGR had dumped Gandhi for the ensuing Tamil Nadu Assembly elections at that time, which he won and formed the government in the state.
After the fall of Charan Singh government, mid-term parliamentary elections were held in January 1980.
Since MGR had dumped Indira, she forged an alliance with the DMK and they won 37 seats. The AIADMK joined hands with Janata Party but could win only two seats.
Indira became prime minister after 1980 Lok Sabha elections and MGR paid the price when she dismissed his government.
The 1984 General Elections were held post-assassination of Indira Gandhi. The sympathy wave helped her son Rajiv Gandhi to secure a landslide victory for the Congress in the elections. The Congress' total tally stood at 414 seats. The AIADMK, which fought elections with the Congress, won 12 seats.
In 1989 Lok Sabha elections, the Congress-AIADMK alliance swept elections and won 38 seats out of 39. The AIADMK's tally was 11.
The alliance bettered its tally in 1991 Lok Sabha elections when it bagged all the 39 seats, with AIADMK winning 11 seats.
The Lok Sabha elections in 1996 saw a clean sweep by the DMK, the Tamil Maanila Congress, and the Communist Party of India.
The AIADMK formed an alliance with the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (MDMK), another breakaway faction of the DMK, during the parliamentary elections in 1998.
The AIADMK bagged 18 seats and shared power with the BJP in the Atal Bihari Vajpayee headed government between 1998 and 1999.
However, the Vajpayee government had to face the Vote of Confidence because the AIADMK supremo Jayalalitha withdrew her party's support after she failed to persuade the Vajpayee government to dismiss Karunanidhi led DMK government in Tamil Nadu. Ultimately, the Vajpayee government lost Vote of Confidence by just one vote.
In the 1999 Lok Sabha elections, the AIADMK once again allied with the Congress and won 10 seats.
In the 2004 Lok Sabha election, the party, in alliance with the BJP again, was humiliated, winning none of the 39 Lok Sabha seats from the state. The Democratic Progressive Alliance (DPA), a DMK-led alliance consisting of all the major opposition parties in the state, swept the election.
1n 2009 Lok Sabha Elections, the AIADMK joined hands with MDMK, Paattali Makkal Katchi (PMK), Communist Party of India (CPI), and Communist Party of India (Marxist) and the alliance won 12 seats.
The AIADMK won nine seats, and one seat each was bagged by MDMK, CPI, and CPI-M.
2014 General Elections proved the golden period for the AIADMK. The party under the leadership of Jayalalitha scored its best-ever tally in the Lok Sabha by winning 37 seats out of 39.
Despite Narendra Modi wave, the BJP could win only one seat. The remaining seat was bagged by the PMK.
Now, the AIADMK has joined hands with the BJP for the 2019 Lok Sabha elections and its rival DMK with the Congress. It will be interesting to see how these two Dravidian parties will perform in the absence of their iconic leaders. The AIADMK supremo Jayalalitha died December 5, 2016, and DMK supremo Karunanidhi on August 7, 2018.