New Delhi, Nov 10 (UNI) An ASSOCHAM and Ernst&Young report released here today justifies India's position in the international fora with the major responsibilty of curbing carbon emission rests with the developed countries, but highlighting that the countries emission standard are 70 per cent below average and 93 per cent below those of the United States.
Neverthless the reports say that emission in India increased by 65 per cent between 1990-2005 and are projected to grow by another 70 per cent in the next 12 years.
Yet, emission in India are low as compared to otother major economies with the country accounting for only two per cent of cummulative energy related emissions during the past few decades.
The much hue and cry in international bodies about India and China being major contributors to global emissions is based on the fact that India is the fourth largest economy and is a highest greenhouse gas emitter.
The study entitled 'Climate Change' makes an indepth analysis of issues affecting this phenomena in India and also elsewhere.
The report also highlights that India's greenhouse gas intensity is currently 20 per cent lower then the world average (15 per cent and 14 per cent than the US and China respectively).
According to the report factors contributing to the decline in energy intensity include improved energy efficiency, the increased use of renewable and nuclear power and enhanced public transport system and energy pricing reforms.
On the issue of climate change impact on society, agriculture production and food security, the report said that it will affect society through its adverse impact on the necessities and comforts of life, including water, food, energy, health, transportation, recreation and so on.
Because societies and their built-up environments have developed hand-in-hand with a relatively stable climate, most of the impact of a rapidly changing climate will pose a significant challenge for their sustenance. Society is especially vulnerable to extrenes such as heat waves and floods, many of which are on the rise.
Further, vulnerability to climate change can be worsened by other societal and human induced issuessuch as, poverty, unequal access to resources, insecurity relating to food and the incidence of diseases.
The effect of climate change on rainfall, temperature and water availability for agriculture will result in huge losses in agricultural production, undermining efforts to reduce rural poverty.
The ill effects of malnutrition may rise phenomenally in coming decades.
According to the report climate change will also result in drastic changes in run-off patterns and in glacial melting which is expected to add to the ecological crisis by having an adverse impact on supplies for irrigation and human settlements.
Central Asia, Northern China and the northern part of South Asia face an immense challenge with the retreat of glaciers (10-15 meters a year) in the Hiamalays.
With the increase in glacial melting, sea levels are also expected to rise rapidly and the permanent or temporary displacement of human habitation in coastal regions may be an outcome.
Tropical cyclones and catastrophic storms are some of the other devastating consequences to which a large number of countries may be exposed.
The impact of climate change on ecological systems is already visible. The plants and species that are unable to cope with this rapid change (currently estimated to include around 20-30 per cent of land species) may face extinction.
Developing countries are expected to suffer the worst consequences of climate change because of their high levels of poverty and the limited capacity of their public health systems to respond, the report said adding that major killer diseases which proliferate in these countries could detrimentally impact millions of people exposed to them.
However, on the positive side the report maintained that higher levels of CO2 in the atmosphere could increase plant productivity and therefore improve the yield of some crops.
However, this may be more than compensated for by other factors such as water shortage.
The weather in some parts of the planet may also be expected to improve, it said.
UNI AK SBA RL NS2049