New Delhi, Aug 29: There has been plenty of debate, following the arrests of five persons for their alleged links with naxalites. The allegation is that these persons very often referred to as urban naxalites are helping their friends in the jungles. They help keep the idea alive, as a result of which the cadres are being built.
The seeds of urban naxalism were sown in the early 2000s and a lengthy document running into 53 pages was published by Govindan Kutty. The document is titled, " CPI (Maoist)-Urban Perspective. It over all deals with the political mobilisation of the urban masses.
The document discusses in detail the role of urban work within the military strategy. It goes on to say, " thus it is clear that the armed struggle and the movement in the rural areas will play the primary role, and the work in the cities will play a secondary role, complementary to the rural work. However, while giving first priority to the rural work, we must also give due importance to the urban struggle. Without a strong urban revolutionary movement, the ongoing people's war faces difficulties; further, without the participation of the urban masses it is impossible to achieve countrywide victory. "
The objectives of urban work:
The document lists three tasks as the objectives of urban work.
Mobilise and organise the basic masses and build the Party on that basis: This is the main activity of the Party. It is the Party's task to organise the working class, as well as other classes and sections like the semi-proletariat, students, middle class employees, intellectuals, etc. It also has the task of dealing with the problems of special social groups like women, dalits, and religious minorities and mobilizing them for the revolutionary movement. It is on this basis that the masses are politicized and the advanced sections consolidated into the Party.
Build the United Front: This involves the task of unifying the working class, building worker-peasant solidarity and alliance, uniting with other classes in the cities, building the fronts against globalization, against Hindu fascism, against repression, etc. This is a very important aspect of the work of the Party in the city.
Military Tasks: While the PGA and PLA in the countryside perform the main military tasks, the urban movement too performs tasks complementary to the rural armed struggle. These involve the sending of cadre to the countryside, infiltration of enemy ranks, organizing in key industries, sabotage actions in coordination with the rural armed struggle, logistical support, etc.
Mass struggles and mass organisations are absolutely necessary for preparing the masses for revolution. They however are not sufficient by themselves without the conscious consolidation and development of the vanguard - the Party.
Thus the best elements that emerge through the struggles should go through a process of politicisation in struggle, ideological and political education in activist groups, study circles and political schools, and consolidation into candidate and party cells. This process is relatively a slow painstaking process as compared to the spontaneous sweeping element of the mass movement.
Consolidation cannot emerge by itself spontaneously without a conscious programme for it and consistent monitoring and implementation at all levels. In urban areas the Party cell is the crucial body for systematic and serious Party building. However all higher bodies must constantly follow-up and pay attention to this task
In the urban areas the main concentration has to be on the consolidation of the vanguard elements from the industrial proletariat class. This is doubly important considering the present weak working class composition of our Party. We have to thus concentrate on the struggles and organisations of the working class, both at the work place and in the bastis, and have a target of drawing the largest numbers of the best members of the working class into the party.
Besides the working class, we should give importance to the consolidation from the semi proletariat, the students, the intellectuals and other sections of the petty bourgeoisie.
United Front Against Hindu Fascist Forces
An important call of the Ninth Congress is to build a broad UF of all secular forces and persecuted religious minorities such as Muslims, Christians, and Sikhs against the Hindu fascist forces. Since a large proportion of the minorities are urbanized and since the attacks of the Hindu fascists are as yet mostly concentrated in the cities, this UF has basically been the responsibility of the urban organisation. This task has appeared in our documents now from many years, but very little has as yet been done. One of the explanations for this failure is the weakness of our urban organisations, but the other more important reason is our neglect of work among the minorities.
The above UF cannot be built merely by uniting some secular individuals on the basis of a political programme. In order to be effective it has to involve the masses, particularly the masses from the minorities. This therefore means that we must have substantial grassroots work among the minorities, particularly the Muslim masses who are the most numerous and the worst victims of the Hindu fascists' atrocities.
However due to extreme ghettoisation in almost all Indian cities, this is only possible if we take a conscious decision to shift out at least some forces from Hindu dominated areas and base them in the slums and localities inhabited by the Muslim poor. This would be the first step to building any united front..
The actual UF organisations would generally be in the form of legal democratic bodies uniting various genuine secular forces as well as organisations of the persecuted minorities. Such organisations should have a programme basically targeting the Hindu fascist organisations and aiming to unite the masses of all communities. We should on this basis conduct propaganda and agitation among both minority and majority sections and attempt to unite the many to isolate and defeat the few Hindu fascist diehards.
Booklets and other propaganda aids explaining the organisations' stands and exposing the fascist organizations' positions should be used. In areas with a history of communal conflicts, genuine peace committees, mohalla committees, and all- community protection teams should be set up.
Issue based joint front organizations can also be built. These could be to fight for the punishment of the perpetrators of pogroms on the minorities, to oppose Hindu communal legislation, to fight against the saffronisation of education, etc. These fronts too should have a mass approach and attempt to widely mobilize secular sections, as well as those most affected.
As the Hindu fascists push ahead with their agenda, the task of building this UF becomes all the more urgent. All urban organisations should plan concretely to bring this into practice.
Local intelligence and helping the rural armed struggle:
Intelligence is a much-neglected function in our Party. Very often we suffer severe losses, or lose good opportunities due to the absence of proper intelligence. In the urban areas intelligence is also very necessary to protect and preserve the urban Party as well as the mass movement. Thus the task of information collection and analysis should be taken up from the beginning itself and responsibility should be allocated accordingly. As the organization grows this task and responsibility should exist at all levels and should be integrated into the functioning of the organisation.
Helping the Rural Armed Struggle:
There are numerous ways through which the urban movement can assist the rural armed struggle and particularly, the base areas and the guerilla zones. Some involve direct and immediate help in terms of materials and personnel; others involve the long-term preparation for the decisive battles in the later stages of the peoples' war.
Infiltration into the Enemy Camp:
It is very important to penetrate into the military, para-military forces, police, and higher levels of the administrative machinery of the state. It is necessary to obtain information regarding the enemy, to build support for the revolution within these organs, and even to incite revolt when the time is ripe. Other types of technical help are also possible.
Sending Cadre to the Rural Areas:
A steady supply of urban cadre is necessary to fulfill the needs of the rural movement and the people's war. This is necessary for providing working class leadership, as well as technical skills to the people's war.
This then is the responsibility of the whole urban Party organization, from the cell upwards, which should inspire comrades to be prepared to take up rural responsibilities. The task of generating new cadre for the rural movement should always be before the various Party forums, which should send up such proposals for transfer of suitable cadre.
It is the higher-level bodies, particularly the State Committees, which will however take the decision in this regard. Decisions of transfer of cadre should take a balanced account of the needs of the movement and organization in both rural as well as the urban areas.
Though the countryside is the main area of operations of the People's Army, there are certain military objectives that need to be performed through operations in the urban areas. This even requires the setting up of permanent structures of the PGA/PLA in the cities and towns.
We should, to the extent possible, make use of computers and the Internet network to further the military objectives of the revolution. Though we are today quite distant from this possibility, we should have the perspective of setting up units with the task of damaging the military and other important networks of the enemy. The possibility of setting up such a structure however depends primarily on the development of the urban mass movement and the ability of the urban Party organization to draw in and consolidate comrades with the required skills for such work.