Why India is pressing hard for UNSC reforms: Explained

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External Affairs Minister Sushma Swaraj
Raising the issue of early reform of UN Security Council, External Affairs Minister Sushma Swaraj has said that concerted efforts should be made to complete the reform process by 2015, coinciding with the 70th Anniversary of the founding of UN.

She said, "Time is less. Since 2015 is the 70th anniversary of the UN, this milestone decision of reforming the UNSC should be done by next year."

What is UNSC?

  • The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations.
  • It works toward maintaining international peace and security.
  • Its powers include establishment of peacekeeping operations, and international sanctions.

What is meant by UNSC reforms?

  • UNSC reforms encompasses five key issues. These are
  • Categories of membership & question of the veto held by the five permanent members
  • Regional representation, size of an enlarged Council and its working methods
  • Security Council-General Assembly relationship.
  • The UNSC reform has been on the agenda of the UN since 1993.

Why India is pressing for UNSC reforms?

  • Among other things, one of the proposed changes is to admit more permanent members. 
  • Increasing number of non-permanent members from 10 to 15 and adding more permanent members without giving the veto power.
  • India, since long time, has been demanding expansion of UNSC and its inclusion as permanent member in it.
  • Along with India, other candidates making similar demands are Brazil, Germany and Japan. All G4 nations.
  • The United Kingdom, France and Russia support G-4 membership in the UNSC.

Why India deserves a permanent place in UNSC?

  • India was among the founding members of United Nations.
  • It has been a member of UNSC for 7 terms and a member of G-77 and G-4, so permanent membership is a logical extension.
  • It is the second largest and a one of the largest constant contributor of troops to United Nations Peacekeeping missions. 
  • Today, India has over 8,500 peacekeepers in the field, more than twice as many as the UN's five big powers combined.
  • India, largest liberal democracy is home to world's second largest population. 
  • It is also the world's tenth largest economy by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity.
  • India is only country from G-4 which is backed by all permanent members on the issue.
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