Babri Masjid demolition: A timeline

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Babri Masjid demolition: A timeline
Ayodhya, Dec 6: Its been 21 years since a mosque was demolished in Ayodhya in Uttar Pradesh by Hindu groups - triggering one of the most violent communal riots in India and neighbouring countries like Pakistan and Bangladesh.

For many Muslim organisations, December 6 is 'black day'. For Vishwa Hindu Parishad, the day is 'victory day'.

The history of religious violence in Ayodhya dates back to 19th century.

Here is a look at the events over the time.

1528: A mosque is built on the site, where according to Hindus, Lord Ram, was born.1853: First ever recorded incidents of religious riots in Ayodhya.

1859: British administration erects a fence to separate the places of worship. According to rules set bu British, the inner court was used by Muslims and the outer court by Hindus.

1949: 'Miraculous' appearance of idols of Lord Ram inside mosque. The idols were allegedly placed there by Hindus. Muslims protest, and both parties file civil suits. The government proclaims the premises a disputed area and locks the gates.

1984: A Hindus committee is formed to "liberate" the birth-place of Lord Ram and build a temple in his honour, led by the Vishwa Hindu Parishad party (VHP).
Then Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) leader Lal Krishna Advani takes over leadership of campaign.

1986: District judge orders the gates of the disputed mosque to be opened to allow Hindus to worship there. Muslims set up Babri Mosque Action Committee in protest.1989: VHP steps up campaign, laying the foundations of a Ram temple on land adjacent to the disputed mosque.

1990: VHP volunteers partially damage the mosque. Prime Minister Chandra Shekhar tries to resolve the dispute through negotiations, but in vain.

1991: BJP comes to power in Uttar Pradesh, where Ayodhya is located.

1992: The mosque is torn down by supporters of the VHP, the Shiv Sena party and the BJP, prompting nationwide rioting between Hindus and Muslims in which more than 2,000 people die.

Incidents of riots were reported in Pakistan and Bangladesh too, where muslims vandalised Hindu temples and homes. Hindus living in those countries suffered more harassment and discrimination in the following years.

1998: The BJP forms coalition government under Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee.

2001: Tensions rise on the anniversary of the demolition of the mosque. VHP pledges again to build Hindu temple at the site.

Jan 2002: Mr Vajpayee sets up an Ayodhya cell in his office and appoints a senior official, Shatrughna Singh, to hold talks with Hindu and Muslim leaders.

Feb 2002: BJP rules out committing itself to the construction of a temple in its election manifesto for Uttar Pradesh assembly elections. VHP confirms deadline of 15 March to begin construction. Hundreds of volunteers converge on site. At least 58 people are killed in an attack on a train in Godhra which is carrying Hindu activists returning from Ayodhya.

Mar 2002: Between 1,000 and 2,000 people, mostly Muslims, die in riots in Godhra in Gujarat following the train attack.

Apr 2002: Three High Court judges begin hearings on determining who owns the religious site.

Jan 2003: Archaeologists begin a court-ordered survey to find out whether a temple to Lord Ram existed on the site.Aug 2003: The survey says there is evidence of a temple beneath the mosque, but Muslims dispute the findings. Mr Vajpayee says at the funeral of Hindu activist Ramchandra Das Paramhans that he will fulfil the dying man's wishes and build a temple at Ayodhya. However, he hopes the courts and negotiations will solve the issue.

Sept 2003: A court rules that seven Hindu leaders should stand trial for inciting the destruction of the Babri Mosque, but no charges are brought against Mr Advani, now deputy prime minister, who was also at the site in 1992.

Oct 2004: Mr Advani says his party still has "unwavering" commitment to building a temple at Ayodhya, which he said was "inevitable".

Nov 2004: A court in Uttar Pradesh rules that an earlier order which exonerated Mr Advani for his role in the destruction of the mosque should be reviewed.

July 2005: Suspected Islamic militants attack the disputed site, using a jeep laden with explosives to blow a hole in the wall of the complex. Security forces kill five people they say are militants, and a sixth who was not immediately identified.

June 2009: The Liberhan commission investigating events leading up to the mosque's demolition submits its report - 17 years after it began its inquiry.

Nov 2009: There is uproar in parliament as the Liberhan commission's report is published and it blames leading politicians from the Hindu nationalist BJP for a role in the mosque's razing.

Sept 2010: Allahabad High Court rules that the site should be split, with the Muslim community getting control of a third, Hindus another third and the Nirmohi Akhara sect the remainder. Control of the main disputed section, where the mosque was torn down, is given to Hindus. A lawyer for the Muslim community says he will appeal.

May 2011: Supreme Court suspends High Court ruling after Hindu and Muslim groups appeal against the 2010 verdict.

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