Human trials of Coronavirus 'ChAdOx1' vaccine begins today: Here's how it works?
New Delhi, Apr 23: Researchers at the University of Oxford in the UK will begin a phase-1 clinical trial of the Covid-19 vaccine called ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 against the novel coronavirus. Scientists at the university believe there is an 80 per cent chance of success.
The Oxford team, led by Professor Sarah Gilbert, is testing ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, a candidate based on a chimpanzee adenovirus modified to include the spike or 'S' protein on the surface of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes Covid-19.
The vaccine is based on an adenovirus vaccine vector and the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Adenoviral vectors are a very well-studied vaccine type, having been used safely in thousands of participants, from 1 week to 90 years of age, in vaccines targeting over 10 different diseases.
It is currently in production at the university's Clinical Biomanufacturing Facility and is expected to be ready in the coming weeks.
The vaccine will be administered intramuscularly to healthy adult volunteers between the ages of 18 and 55 and will focus on safety and tolerability, as well as providing an initial assessment of how effective the shot is. The test will be conducted by the university's Jenner Institute and Oxford Vaccine Group.
The study will assess the vaccine candidate's safety and ability to induce an immune response against the novel coronavirus. ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 will be compared to a control injection.
The University of Oxford noted that the vaccine will undergo additional preclinical tests and will be manufactured in large quantities before entering the trial.
The Imperial candidate has been developed by a team led by Professor Robin Shattock and is an mRNA vaccine against the S protein on SARS-CoV-2 - using a similar approach to a vaccine developed by US biotech Moderna which is already in clinical trials.
Here's how it 'ChAdOx1 nCoV-19' vaccine works?
Coronaviruses have club-shaped spikes on their outer coats. Immune responses from other coronavirus studies suggest that these are a good target for a vaccine.
The Oxford vaccine contains the genetic sequence of this surface spike protein inside the ChAdOx1 construct. After vaccination, the surface spike protein of the coronavirus is produced, which primes the immune system to attack the coronavirus if it later infects the body.