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China shares borders with 14 countries, has territorial dispute with all

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New Delhi, July 07: China has begun pulling back troops from along its contested border with India following the clash between the two nuclear-armed neighbours in nearly 50 years, which left 20 Indian soldiers dead.

Boxer Rebellion in China and the role Indian soldiers played in crushing it

China shares borders with 14 countries, has territorial dispute with all

China has the largest number of neighbours (14) sharing its 22,000 km land borders namely: North Korea, Russia, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar, Laos and Vietnam and the country is embroiled in territorial disputes all the countries.

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    Here is a look at the territorial claims of China

    India

    China illegally occupies 38,000 sq km (Aksai Chin) of India territory in Ladakh. Aksai Chin has strategic importance for China as it connects Tibet and Xinjiang. In 1957 China completed building a road in Aksai Chin, about which India did not know until a Chinese map was published in 1958.

    China also claimed approximate 90,000 sq km of Indian territory in the state of Arunachal Pradesh. Arunachal Pradesh is claimed by China as 'Southern Tibet'. After tensions built up following the Dalai Lama's exile during the Tibetan uprising in 1959, a Sino-Indian war erupted in 1962 over this disputed Himalayan border.

    Aksai Chin and Arunachal Pradesh remain sources of tensions between China and India and both sides have not managed to negotiate an agreement as to the precise border.

    Nepal

    China and Nepal share a border of 1,415 km, which was demarcated according to a 1961 treaty. China claims parts of Nepal dating back to the Sino-Nepalese War in 1788-1792. China says they are part of Tibet, therefore, part of China.

    Bhutan

    China has new dispute over Sateng Wildlife Sanctuary in eastern Bhutan. Both sides share a border of roughly 470 km with a disputed territory of 495 square-km.

    Vietnam

    China shares a land border of 1,300 km with Vietnam. China claims large parts of Vietnam on historical grounds. Both countries are also at loggerheads over Macclesfield Bank Paracel Islands, parts of the South China Sea and the Spratly Islands. For centuries, Vietnam was subject to Chinese domination resulting in conflicts and invasions.

    Brunei

    There is a dispute over the Spratly Islands between the two nations.

    Taiwan

    China claims all of Taiwan but the disputes are particularly over Macclesfield Bank, Parcel Islands, Scarborough Shoal, parts of the South China Sea, the Spratly Islands.

    Japan

    China claims parts of the East China Sea, particularly the Senkaku Islands in Japanese territory.

    North Korea

    North Korea, China's closest ally, shares a 1,416-kilometre-long border with the country, which has been mainly defined by two rivers. China claims Baekdu Mountain and Jiandao. Occasionally China has also claimed all of North Korea on historical grounds.

    South Korea

    China claims parts of the East China Sea, has also claimed all of North Korea on historical grounds.

    Russia

    China shares its second-longest border of 4,300 km with Russia. China claims 1,60,000 sq km of Russian territory despite signing several agreements.

    Kazakhstan

    China and Kazakhstan share a border of 1,700 km in China's vast North Western province of Xin Jiang. The country serves as a buffer zone between China and Russia. There are unilateral claims by China on Kazakhstan territory.

    Kyrgyzstan

    China claims majority of Kyrgyzstan on the grounds that it had unfairly surrendered the territory to Russia in the 19th century. As a result of ethnic tensions in Kyrgyzstan, China temporarily closed its border in 2010.

    Tajikistan

    After reaching border agreements with Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan, China's border negotiations with Tajikistan lagged behind due to the civil war in Tajikistan. Tajikistan is claimed by China on historical grounds.

    Afganistan

    China and Afghanistan share the 210 km border known as the Wakhan Corridor. Despite bilateral treaty of 1963, China still encroaches Badakhshan province.

    Myanmar

    China and Myanmar share a 2,185 km border based on the border agreement of 1960.

    China claims parts of Myanmar on historical grounds.

    Laos

    China shares a border of 505 km with Laos based on a border treaty signed in 1991.

    China claims parts of Laos on historical grounds.

    Kazakhstan

    China and Kazakhstan share a border of 1,700 km in China's vast North Western province of Xin Jiang. Border disputes date back to Soviet times.

    Mongolia

    Mongolia shares a border of 4677 km with China, the longest for both countries. China increasingly turns to Mongolia to meet its energy needs. China claims parts of Mongolia on historical grounds.

    Tibet

    China claims Tibet to be an inalienable part of it since the 13th century. It controls Tibet's 12.28 lakh sq km territory.

    China is locked in disputes over parts of the South China Sea with Indonesia, Malaysia, The Philippines and Singapore.

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