Nuwan Kulasekara, 34, was on the A-1 highway when a motorcyclist travelling in the opposite direction hit a barrier dividing the lanes and crashed into the cricketer's vehicle, police said.
"He was briefly held as part of routine investigations and released," a police official at Kadawatha, 15 kilometres (10 miles) east of Colombo, said.
"The motorcyclist succumbed to his injuries but there were no other casualties."
There was no immediate comment from Kulasekara but a close associate told AFP he was shaken after the incident.
The veteran seamer made his Test debut against New Zealand in 2005 and went on to play 21 Tests, capturing 48 wickets. He retired from Test cricket in June to concentrate on shorter formats of the game.
Police have deployed Buddhist monks to bless dangerous roads, including the A-1, to minimise accidents.
Around 2,700 people were killed last year on Sri Lanka's roads, with about half the victims motorcyclists.