Hosts lost the wicket of opener Lokesh Rahul (67) to finish the second day's play at 120/1 in their response to Australia's first innings total of 451.
Playing his 50th Test, opener Murali Vijay looked rock solid to remain unbeaten on 42 along with Cheteshwar Pujara on 10 not out at stumps.
The opening duo of Rahul (67) and Vijay led India's fightback with a 91-run stand before the Karnataka right-hander was sent back by pacer Pat Cummins caught behind by wicketkeeper Matthew Wade.
Earlier, India came back strongly with the ball as hosts restricted Australia to 451. Leading from the front, Aussie skipper Steve Smith scored 178 and remained unbeaten till the end.
Glenn Maxwell was the second Australian who slammed a ton in the first innings. He scored his maiden Test hundred before Ravindra Jadeja got him caught behind the stumps.
Jadeja was the most effective Indian bowler as he returned with another five-wicket haul in the second consecutive game.
Here are the images from the second day's play:
Glenn Maxwell slams maiden Test ton
Australian batsman Glenn Maxwell reacts after completing his century during 2nd day of 3rd Test against India in Ranchi on Friday.
Maxwell gets emotional
Glenn Maxwell became emotional, while skipper Steve Smith looks on, after completing his century during 2nd day of 3rd Test against India in Ranchi on Friday.
Jadeja gets rid of Maxwell
Ravindra Jadeja celebrates after taking the wicket of Australian batsman Glenn Maxwell during 2nd day of 3rd Test in Ranchi on Friday. Image Courtesy: BCCI
Jadeja celebrates fall of Matthew Wade's wicket
Jadeja was also the pick of the Indian bowlers in the first innings. He completed another five-wicket haul by grabbing four wickets on the second day and was almost unplayable.
Jadeja grabs another five-for
Jadeja raises the ball to acknowledge the audience after picking up 5 wickets for 124 runs from 49.3 overs in the first innings. Image Courtesy: BCCI
Rahul-Vijay give hosts a strong start
The opening duo of Lokesh Rahul and Murali Vijay led India's fightback with a 91-run stand before the Karnataka right-hander was dismissed for 67.
Image Courtesy: BCCI
Cummins gets rid of well-set Rahul
Pacer Pat Cummins removed Rahul by getting him caught behind by wicketkeeper Matthew Wade.
Kohli stayed off the field
Virat Kohli during practice in the morning of day two of the third test match between India and Australia held at the JSCA International Stadium Complex in Ranchi.
Image Courtesy: BCCI