Furlong will take up her position on July 17. She is currently head of sport at Hannover Sport with clients including England and Wales Cricket Board, NFL and Asian Football Confederation.
Prior to Hannover, she ran her own consultancy for a number of years with a range of clients that included team England for whom she led the media operation at Glasgow 2014 Commonwealth Games.
Commenting on her appointment, Furlong said, "I am delighted to be joining the ICC at an exciting time with a strategic review underway that is focused on improving both governance and cricket structures."
"I am looking forward to working with cricketing colleagues at both the ICC and around the world as we collectively look forward to taking on the exciting challenges that lie ahead," she said.
ICC chief executive David Richardson said: "Claire Furlong brings with her a wealth of experience, which she has earned following successful stints with some of the leading sport organisations."
"Effective communications, internal and external, is a critical aspect of any organisation and we look forward to welcoming her to the ICC headquarters and benefiting from her expertise and experience."