The Australians, who won the first Test in Hobart by an innings and 212 runs, dismissed the Caribbean tourists for 282 late on the fourth day after declaring their second innings on 179 for three with a 459-run lead.
The tourists were 146 for four at tea and despite a spirited 100-run stand for the sixth wicket between skipper Jason Holder and former captain Denesh Ramdin they quickly lost their remaining four wickets to crash to defeat 1.3 overs before the scheduled close.
Holder was out for 68 off 86 balls, while Ramdin chipped in with 59 off 90 balls in his best Test score for two years.
Spinner Nathan Lyon was named man of the match with seven match wickets while all-rounder Mitchell Marsh finished with four for 61 in the second innings.
"I thought our energy, intent and all that in the field was probably as good as it's been this summer," Australia skipper Steve Smith said.
"'Lyono' did what he's done so well for us this summer, got wickets for us at crucial times. he's bowled beautifully."
The final Test of the three-Test series gets under way in Sydney on Sunday. For a time Ramdin and Holder held the Australians at bay with a robust partnership until Ramdin was caught behind by Peter Nevill off Marsh.
He shared in a 100-run stand with Holder to resist the Aussies for 21 overs. It was the first century partnership of the series for the embattled Windies.
"I'm obviously proud of the way the guys showed some fight in this game," Holder said.
"I'm still disappointed we didn't put up a better fight but still credit to the way the guys played, especially Darren Bravo in the first innings and Denesh Ramdin in the second innings. I thought the bowlers tried (too)."
"A better effort in this game." Carlos Brathwaite could not back up his 59 in the first innings and was bowled by Lyon for two, the ball barely clipping the top of the off-stump.