A vehicle packed with explosives was detonated at a busy market in the district of Urgun in Paktika.
The death toll made it the worst single attack this year.
Taliban has claimed responsibility for the attack in Kabul.
The council expressed its serious concern about the threats posed by Taliban, Al Qaeda and other terrorist and extremist groups.
The UN Security Council also stressed the need to bring perpetrators, organisers, financiers and sponsors of "these reprehensible acts of terrorism" to justice.