Modi, who arrived in Dushanbe on Sunday evening from Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, was in the morning accorded a ceremonial welcome.
"Deepening a Strategic Partnership. PM @narendramodi in restricted talks with President Emomali Rahmon," tweeted external affairs ministry spokesperson Vikas Swarup.
"In 8 days, PM @narendramodi's 5th ceremonial welcome. Emomali Rahmon, President of Tajikistan receives the PM," he tweeted.
On Sunday evening, Modi tweeted: "I seek to take India's ties with Tajikistan to newer heights through this visit & expand the scale of cooperation."
"Landed in Tajikistan. My gratitude to PM Qohir Rasulzoda for the wonderful welcome."
Modi has visited Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Ufa in Russia for the BRICS and SCO summits, and Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan. He returns on Monday.