An external affairs ministry spokesman said Modi discussed treatment of the disease with stem cell pioneer Shinya Yamanaka.
Professor "Yamanaka discusses possibilities of sickle cell anaemia cure with" the Indian prime minister, the spokesman tweeted.
According to the spokesman, sickle cell anaemia is prevalent in several parts of India.
Sickling decreases the cells' flexibility and results in a risk of various life threatening complications. It mostly occurs in regions where malaria is rampant.
Modi arrived here Saturday on a five-day visit to Japan that will later him to Tokyo.