While speaking to reporters, Premier Li Keqiang emphasised to strengthen mutual political trust so that together India and China can build a fairer and more reasonable international order, South China Morning Post reported.
PM Modi met Li in Beijing's Great Hall of the People, after which he will visit the economic powerhouse of Shanghai to meet business leaders.
President Xi Jinping hosted Modi in his ancestral hometown of Xian at the start of Modi's three-day visit to China on Thursday - seen as a reciprocal gesture after Modi hosted him in his home state of Gujarat in September 2014.
"We must work together to enhance mutual trust, control our differences and problems to avoid them interfering with bilateral relations," Xi was quoted as telling PM Modi.
Modi visited the Terracotta Army, a world heritage site, and a temple in Xian on first day of his visit.