Jaishankar, who was in Bhutan on Sunday, was received at the Hazrat Shahjalal International Airport by his Bangladeshi counterpart Shahidul Haque.
Jaishankar immediately left for the foreign office to hold foreign secretary-level talks.
He will meet Bangladesh Foreign Minister A.H. Mahmood Ali and then call on Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina in the evening.
Jaishankar, on a 24-hour working visit, is set to travel to Islamabad on Tuesday and Kabul the following day.
The discussions in Dhaka will focus on bilateral issues, the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and also on sub-regional level cooperation involving Bangladesh, Bhutan, India and Nepal (BBIN).