Lewthwaite, 29, is the wife of one of the four suicide bombers, Jermaine Lindsay, involved in the terror attacks in London in July 2005 in which 52 people were killed and hundreds more injured.
She has been linked with Somali militant Islamist group Al Shabab, which claimed responsibility for the attack on Nairobi's Westgate mall over the weekend in which at least 67 which were killed.
Interpol did not link the warrant to the Nairobi attack
"By requesting an Interpol red notice, Kenya has activated a global 'tripwire' for this fugitive," said Interpol Secretary General Ronald K Noble. "Through the Interpol red notice, Kenyan authorities have ensured that all 190 member countries are aware of the danger posed by this woman, not just across the region but also worldwide," he added.
She is wanted by Kenya on charges of being in possession of explosives and conspiracy to commit a felony dating back to December 2011. The Interpol wanted persons' alert requires member countries to detain the suspect pending extradition procedures.
Lewthwaite, who is believed to use the alias Natalie Webb, had previously only been wanted for the alleged possession of a fraudulently obtained South African passport.
Interpol did not link the warrant to the Nairobi attack, but it comes after much speculation linking Lewthwaite to the Westgate mall attack.
The notice came as Britain revised down the number of Britons killed in the Nairobi shopping mall attack from six to five, saying one of those previously identified was Kenyan. Kenya is continuing three days of official mourning for the civilian and military victims of the siege.
Al Shabab, which is linked to Al Qaeda, has repeatedly threatened attacks on Kenyan soil if Nairobi did not pull its troops out of Somalia.