The report by UNAIDS, the United Nations programme on HIV/AIDS, said that 19 million of the 35 million people living with the virus globally do not know their HIV-positive status and so ending the AIDS epidemic by 2030 will require smart scale-up to close the gap.
The first-ever UNAIDS 'Gap Report' said after sub-Saharan Africa, the region with the largest number of people living with HIV is Asia and the Pacific. At the end of 2013, there were an estimated 4.8 million people living with HIV across the region. Six countries -- China, India, Indonesia, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam - account for more than 90 per cent of the people living with HIV in the region.
"India has the third largest number of people living with HIV in the world 2.1 million at the end of 2013 and accounts for about 4 out of 10 people living with HIV in the region," the report said. It said HIV treatment coverage is only 36 per cent in India, where 51 per cent of AIDS-related deaths occur.
The report said new HIV infections in South and South-East Asia declined by 8 per cent and by 16 per cent in the Pacific between 2005 and 2013. In India, the numbers of new HIV infections declined by 19 per cent, yet it still accounted for 38 per cent of all new HIV infections in the region. The proportions of people who do not have access to antiretroviral therapy treatment are 64 per cent in India.
In Asia and the Pacific, the number of AIDS-related deaths fell by 37 per cent between 2005 and 2013, the report said. India recorded a 38 per cent decline in AIDS-related deaths between 2005 and 2013. During this period, there was a major scale up of access to HIV treatment, it said. At the end of 2013, more than 700,000 people were on antiretroviral therapy, the second largest number of people on treatment in any single country.
In India, HIV prevalence among female sex workers dropped from 10.3 per cent to 2.7 per cent but it increased in the states of Assam, Bihar and Madhya Pradesh, the report said. The estimated population size of sex workers is 868,000, of which 2.8 per cent is HIV-positive. In India, HIV prevalence among women who inject drugs was nearly twice that or more than the figures for their male counterparts, it said.