Morsi arrived in the courthouse in his private clothes having refused to wear the uniform worn by those in preventive detention, reports Xinhua.
Sources inside the courthouse said the presiding judge asked Morsi to wear the uniform, but he refused.
Morsi is accused along with 14 top Muslim Brotherhood officials of inciting violence and the murder of protestors outside the presidential palace in December 2012.
Egypt is on high alert for the trial and nearly 20,000 policemen have been deployed to deal with any outbreak of violence.
It was Morsi's first public appearance since he was toppled July 3 by the military in response to nationwide protests against his one-year rule. He has been kept at an undisclosed location after his arrest.
Morsi is accused along with Muslim Brotherhood officials of inciting violence.
In November 2012, Morsi issued a decree giving himself sweeping powers, prompting opponents to accuse him of betraying the ideals of the anti-Mubarak revolution.
A month later, deadly clashes erupted outside the presidential palace between the supporters and the opponents of the president. Morsi is facing allegations of inciting the violence.