"Protection is the priority," a statement issued after an executive meeting on Wednesday said.
Management and law enforcement are to be strengthened, and an integrated registry system and a state-level database for cultural heritage will be established, the China Daily reported.
The country will also step up training in cultural heritage, as well as relics protection and restoration, the statement said.
Severe measures will be taken to stop the theft and sabotage of cultural heritage, it said, emphasising the prevention of "demolishing old sites and replacing them with new ones".
In addition, more museums will be given subsidies so they can open free to the public and exert a role in tourism.
Statistics from the State Administration of Cultural Heritage showed that China had 4,510 registered museums at the end of 2014, 345 more than the previous year. Of those, 21.8 percent are private museums, 2.3 percent more than 2013.