All 10 had their passports confiscated after they were detained at Montreal's Trudeau International Airport at the weekend, BBC reported.
"Arrested youths have not been charged, but investigations were ongoing," said police.
Identity of the arrested youths have not been disclosed.
Canada is part of the US.-led coalition that is fighting the Islamic State (ISIS) militant group in Iraq and Syria.
Prime Minister Stephen Harper announced in March that he planned to expand the mission and has since pledged $139m (£89m) to help alleviate the growing humanitarian crisis in the region.