Members belonging to the Congress, Trinamool Congress and People's Democratic Party staged the walkout after the government said it has no intention of bringing a resolution to condemn the Israeli raids.
Reacting to the demand, Parliamentary Affairs Minister M. Venkaiah Naid said: "I have noted the views expressed by the members."
"Domestic politics should not affect our foreign policy," he said, adding the matter is "highly sensitive" and "any move by the government should not have any implications".
Unhappy over the government's response, members of the Congress staged a walkout followed by the Trinamool Congress and the PDP members.
Since July 8, Israel has been engaged in a large-scale aerial operation in the Gaza Strip, where Israeli war jets have carried out hundreds of intensive strikes on targets that belong to Hamas and other militant groups in the coastal enclave.
The Gaza-based health ministry said the operation has killed at least 187 people, wounded 1,390 and destroyed more than 250 houses.
There have been protests against the Israeli attack in various Indian cities, including in Srinagar on Tuesday.