The two opposition parties -- All Jharkhand Students Union (AJSU) and Jharkhand Vikas Morcha-Prajatantrik (JVM-P) -- were supported by the Janata Dal-United in enforcing the shutdown.
Many districts, including Bokaro, Dhanbad, Giridih, were affected as trains were stopped and highways were blocked. Many shops remained closed in Ranchi and Jamshedpur.
Hundreds of party workers were arrested.
JVM-P president and former chief minister Babulal Marandi and AJSU president Sudesh Mahto were detained along with many supporters.
The state is ruled by the Jharkhand Mukti Morcha with Hemant Soren as the chief minister.