The study titled Masculinity, Intimate Partner Violence and Son Preference in India by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and Washington-based International Centre for Research on Women (ICRW) puts a spotlight on the high prevalence of intimate partner violence and son preference in India.
66% men believe that they had "a greater say than their wife or partner in the important decisions that affect them", it stated.
According to the study, 52% of the women surveyed reported that they had experienced some form of violence, with 38% suffering physical violence, including being kicked, beaten, slapped, choked and burned. "Men who did exert control through violence were diverse in age, educational status, place of residence and caste status.Educated men and women who were 35 years old or more were less likely to perpetrate or experience violence."
The study is based on interviews of 9,205 men and 3,158 women, aged 18-49 across Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra.
If men with discriminatory gender views are more inclined to physically abusing their partner, then they are also the ones more likely to want sons, it affirms. "Of those who expressed a preference for more sons or daughters, almost four times as many desired more sons than daughters. Men and women who wanted more sons were typically older, less literate, poorer and more likely to live in a rural setting," states the report.
"The findings of the study are extremely clear on lasting impact of the childhood experiences. It is high time we begin to seriously think how we wish to bring up our boys and also present ourselves as adults to younger ones within the families," Ravi Verma, Regional Director, ICRW-Asia said in a statement.
(With inputs from agencies)