KCR, as the chief minister is popularly known, sought a package and financial assistance for the new state.
The Telangana Rashtra Samithi (TRS) chief also urged the prime minister to withdraw the ordinance transferring 205 villages in Khammam district of Telangana to Andhra Pradesh as part of construction of the Polavaram irrigation project.
KCR submitted a detailed memorandum to Modi. He also sought national status to Paranahita Chevella irrigation project, TRS sources said.
Earlier, the Prime Minister's Office said in a tweet: "Telangana CM Shri K. Chandrasekhar Rao & a delegation of 11 MPs met the PM in New Delhi."
The Telangana chief minister also called on President Pranab Mukherjee.
Modi Saturday had a stream of visitors, including two governors.
The prime minister met Lt. Gen. (retd) Nirbhay Sharma and M.K. Narayanan, the governors of Arunachal Pradesh and West Bengal, respectively.
Classical dancer Sonal Mansingh too called on Modi.