The division bench of Chief Justice A M Khanvilkar and Justice Alok Aradhe directed the state government, its home department and the director of Special Task Force to file replies by September 12.
Senior advocates Indira Jaisingh, KTS Tulsi and Vivek Krishna Tankha among others appeared for petitioners.
The petition -- a public interest litigation -- seeks CBI probe into the scam in the Pre-Medical Test conducted by the Madhya Pradesh Professional Examination Board (MPPEB), and in various other government recruitments done through it.
Congress has been demanding CBI probe ever since the matter came to light. The BJP government in the state has maintained that it is not necessary as a Special Task Force of police is probing the scam.
Earlier, disposing of similar petitions demanding CBI probe, the High Court had decided to monitor the probe regularly.