The voting took place at around 2 pm after Chief Minister Raman Singh termed as "baseless" the Opposition's charges of corruption against his government.
The Chief Minister's reply in the Legislative Assembly lasted for nearly one-and-half hour.
As the motion was put to vote by Speaker Gaurishankar Agrawal, Leader of Opposition TS Singhdeo demanded division following which the Speaker announced voting in reference to the motion.
As many as 50 members voted against the motion while 37 in favour.
In the 90-member House, BJP has 49 members, Congress 39, BSP one and an independent. Besides, there is one nominated member of the state assembly.
Forty eight MLAs of BJP, one nominated member and a BSP MLA voted against the motion while 37 Congress MLAs voted in favour.
The independent member did not participate in the voting while two Congress members were absent. Earlier speaking in favour of motion, Singhdeo said the state government cheated people by not fulfilling the poll promises and committing financial scam.
"The BJP government had promised to procure every single grain of the farmers. They had assured to hike the support price on paddy to Rs 2,100 per quintal. None of the promises have been fulfilled till date," Singhdeo said.
Hitting out at the government for outsourcing school teachers, he said it is shameful that government doesn't have able and qualified teachers to impart education to students.
"Outsourcing of school teachers will have consequences on the job opportunity of local youths," he added.