"The blast was inside his offices. The chief is not hurt," a senior police official at the headquarters in the Afghan capital told AFP after the explosion rocked the city.
The Taliban claimed responsibility via a recognised Twitter account, though it was unclear how the attack occurred or whether a suicide bomber was involved.
"We can confirm a blast inside Kabul police HQ, we don't have more details now," Najib Danish deputy police spokesman told AFP. Kabul is regularly hit by Taliban attacks, with the military, police and government officials among those targeted.
In the last major attack, four Afghan soldiers were killed and around a dozen people -- including six civilians -- wounded when a roadside bomb planted by the Taliban exploded on October 21. That blast was caused by a remote-controlled bomb targeting an Afghan army bus.
US-led NATO troops end their 13-year combat mission in Afghanistan next month, with about 12,500 soldiers due to stay on into next year on a training and support mission.
NATO troop numbers peaked at 130,000 in 2010, but now stand at less than 34,000.