During the 20-minute meeting, the Chief Minister briefed the Prime Minister on various development initiatives undertaken by the new BJP-led government in Assam.
The Chief Minister said he has also submitted to the Prime Minister a 'white paper' on the financial condition of the state, which is facing a fund crunch.
Sonowal later met Finance Minister Arun Jaitely and sought financial assistance from the Centre to overcome the crisis in Assam.
Earlier, the Chief Minister called on Vice President Hamid Ansari, who is also the Chairman of Rajya Sabha, and Lok Sabha Speaker Sumitra Mahajan. Sources described the last two meetings as "courtesy call" by the new Chief Minister, who took charge on May 24.
Before moving to the state, Sonowal was the Union Minister for Sports and Youth Affairs and a Lok Sabha member.