India and China are home to the oldest and living civilization of the world. Indian civiliazation was flourished on the banks of Sindhu and Ganges while Chinese civilization was developed on the banks of Huangghe (Yellow River) and Changjiang (Yangtze River) the longest river of Asia.
India and China relationship has witnessed both conflict and cooperation. Decades long relationship has sailed through Hindi-Chini bhai bhai to war in 1962. In late 70s, then Indian external affairs minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee paid a visit to China in February 1979 to break the ice between the nations. It was first ministerial visit post 1962 war.
There was an early setback when he was forced to cut that ‘patch-up' trip short because of no thought being spared by the China about the sensitivities of their guests in deciding to "teach a lesson" to Vietnam (as to India earlier) while he was still on Chinese soil.
China showed same lack sensitivity when President Venkataraman visited China the first Head of State level visit between the two countries ever in 1992.
Diplomatic relations were established between India and China after a period of 14 years. One of the senior members of the Indian Foreign Service, K.R. Naryan, was accredited India‘s Ambassador to Beijing in 1976. This was a pragmatic step towards putting Indian-Chinese relations back on an even track.
India-China relations were become cordial after then Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi visited the country. It was the first prime ministerial visit between the nations since Jawahar Lal Nehru‘s 1954 visit, his visit helped balance the score in terms of summit visits.
Confidence Building Measures (CBMs) like mutual troop reductions, regular meetings of local military commanders and advance notification of military exercises helped made in reducing border tension.
Relationship between India-China further deteriorated in June 1967 when two Indian diplomats were expelled on alleged charges of espionage activities.
India and China Border trade resumed in July 1992, after an interval of more than 30 years, and consulates reopened in Mumbai and Sahnghai in December 1992.
Prime Minister Narsima Rao‘s visit to China in September 1993 saw the conclusion of the Agreement on Maintenance of Peace and Tranquility in Border Areas along the LAC.
Chinese Premier Wen Jiabo paid a visit to India from April 9 - 12, 2005 proved to be the most substantive in its outcome. Prime Minister Manmohan Sing visited China in 2008 during the visit India signed -Shared Vision on the 21st Century.
Indian PM Dr Manmohan Singh visited China to participate in the 7th Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM) Summit. Prime Minister Manmohan again visited China in October 2013.