1220: Federick II is crowned the Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Honorius III.
1542: Laws are passed in Spain protecting American Indians against enslavement.
1757: Austria defeats Prussia in the Seven Years War.
1847: New York's first opera house Astor Place Opera House is opened.
1890: Former French president Charles da Gaulle is born.
1935: Pan Am begins first Trans-Pacific airmail service between San Francisco and Manila.
1936: Clash between Japanese and Mongolian armies in China; 1,200 killed.
1939: Samajwadi Party supremo Mulayam Singh Yadav is born.
1948: The Democratic Republic of Vietnam led by Ho Chi Minh seeks admission to the United Nations.
1963: US President John F Kennedy assassinated in Dallas, Texas. Lyndon B Johnson takes over as the president.
1964: Nearly 40,000 people pay tribute to assassinated US president JF Kennedy ay Arlington Cemetery on the first anniversary of his death.
1973: Great Britain announces plan for moderate Protestans and Catholics to share power in Northern Ireland.
1989: Lebanese President Rene Moawad killed in explosion in West Beirut.
1990: Late prime minister of Great Britain Margaret Thatcher withdraws from the Conservative Party's leadership election.
2004: Orange Revolution begins in Ukraine.
2005: Angela Merkel takes over as the first woman Chancellor of Germany.
2008: Ceasefire between Hamas and Israel comes into force after eight days of violence.