"Twenty-three al-Qaeda fighters were killed in air raids launched late on Friday against their positions," one security source told AFP.
A police source gave the same death toll from the air strikes in a mountainous area of Al-Bayda province.
The sources said the raids hit three villages west of the provincial capital, also called Al-Bayda -- Al-Makhnaq, Al-Dooqi and Al-Mamdud.
Residents said the raids were carried out by US aircraft, but those accounts could not be immediately verified.
Yemen is the ancestral homeland of slain al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden and the jihadist network took advantage of a protracted anti-government uprising last year to seize large swathes of the south and east.
Washington has long made the country a major focus of its "war on terror". Two of the raids, launched from around 2330 IST and lasting around three hours in total, struck the homes of Ahmed and Ali al-Humaiqani, two residents of Wadi al-Makhnaq, witnesses said.
"An Al-Qaeda training camp can be found in Wadi al-Makhnaq," one local resident told AFP.
"Several armed men arrived in multiple vehicles, along with two trucks loaded with weapons and ammunitions boxes, and attended Friday prayers in Wadi al-Makhnaq," said the resident, who declined to be identified.