In the last six decades of electoral politics, a number of registered but unrecognised parties tested their luck and appeal in the state, but barring a few they failed to impress the voters.
Such parties first contested the third state assembly elections in 1962 when Republican Party, with focus on dalit politics, right-wing Hindu Mahasabha and Ram Rajya Party contested the polls.
While Republican Party and Hindu Mahasabha won eight and two seats respectively, Ram Rajya Party managed to open its account.
A major achievement came in 1969 when Chaudhary Charan Singh-led Bhartiya Kranti Dal, a registered but unrecognised party, won 98 seats in the house of 425 and emerged as the second largest party after Congress.
Republican Party, which started caste-based politics in the state, tasted some success initially but after its merger with Congress, this type of political agenda was sidelined for almost one and a half decade.
The emergence of BSP in 1985 and its success once again bolstered the morale of parties following caste-based politics after which a series of parties emerged on the scene including Apna Dal, Rashtriya Swabhiman Party, Indian Justice Party and Lok Janshakti Party.
With the start of Ram temple movement in late 1980s, some parties like Shiv Sena also indulged in religion-based politics.