The 3-6 6-7 6-4 6-4 6-4 loss meant Federer will have to wait for another year to get on par with Pete Sampras as the joint highest winner of the Wimbledon trophy.
This was also the first time Federer lost in a Grand Slam match despite being two sets up. Except for the first two sets, Tsonga appeared to have got the measure of the Swiss legend in the remaining three sets. His win ensured that he meets Novak Djokovic in the semi-finals of Wimbledon 2011.
Federer's defeat in the quarter-finals of the event is for the second consecutive year.
Tsonga who was visibly elated after dumping Federer in the quarter-finals, said, "I felt so good on the court. I was quick. I was just perfect today. Every time I was feeling like a dream."
Federer, considered by many as the all-time best was sanguine in the defeat and admitted that it was his match to win but credited Tsonga for his remarkable resilience. He said, "Except the score, many many things went right. I thought I played a good match myself. I'm actually pretty pleased with my performance today. It's kind of hard going out of the tournament that way, but unfortunately it does happen sometimes."