Six attackers were killed in the strike but there were no casualties among NATO or civilian staff.
Taliban used a car bomb, RPG and small arms fire to attack Jalalabad base which is one of NATO's largest bases in Afghanistan, after Kandahar in the south and Bagram in the suburbs of Kabul.
Taliban spokesman Zabihullah Mujahed claimed the attack in a telephone call to AFP.
"The attackers used a car bomb, RPG and small arms fire. They detonated the car bomb but it did not reach the perimeter," said Lieutenant Commander Iain Baxter.