Washington, June 22 (ANI): American scientists have successfully completed the world's most comprehensive comparative analysis of bacterial communities housed in the human nose and throat.
The findings of the study, appearing in the online open-access journal mBio, could provide new insights into why some individuals become colonized with pathogens while others do not.
"The nose and throat are important sites of pathogen colonization, yet the microbiota of both are relatively unexplored by culture-independent approaches," said Katherine Lemon of Children's Hospital Boston, a lead author on the study.
Until now most of the knowledge of bacteria living in the nose and throat has been generated using culture-based techniques and has primarily focused on identifying pathogenic bacteria.
In this study, Lemon and her colleagues examined and compared the bacterial communities from the noses and throats of seven healthy adults using two different culture-independent methods one of which was a 16S rRNA microarray, called the PhyloChip, which possesses 500,000 probes and can detect approximately 8,500 different genetically distinct groups of bacteria.
Despite the close physical connection between the nose and throat, the researchers found distinct differences in bacterial populations.
In the nose the majority of bacteria found were of the phyla Firmicutes and Actinobacteria and compared to other areas of the body that had been studied the distribution was most reminiscent of the skin.
In the throat the majority of bacteria were of the phyla Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes and the distribution was more similar to that found in saliva.
They also found an inverse relationship between the prevalence of the Staphylococcaceae family of bacteria, whose members include important pathogens like Staphylococcus aureus, and Corynebacteriaceae and Propionibacteriaceaea families, whose members are more commonly benign commensals.
Lemon said: "This survey of the microbiota of the nostril and oropharynx from seven healthy adults contributes to the growing understanding of the composition of healthy human microbiota and its interpersonal variation. An improved understanding of competitive bacterial colonization will increase our ability to define predispositions to pathogen carriage at these sites and the subsequent risk of infection."
The study team also comprised researchers from Harvard Medical School, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of California, San Francisco. (ANI)