Cellular defect that leads to cancer discovered

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Washington, March 17 (ANI): Scientists at the University of California, San Francisco researchers have found that a key cellular defect that disturbs the production of proteins in human cells can lead to cancer susceptibility.

They also discovered that a new generation of inhibitory drugs offers promise in correcting this defect.

According to researchers, their finding has broad clinical implications in the fight against cancer and could affect treatment of lymphoma and many other forms of the disease, including prostate cancer, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, brain cancer and multiple myeloma.

The discovery was made in the laboratory of UCSF faculty scientist Davide Ruggero, whose lab team is doing research in the burgeoning field of study on how defects in protein synthesis can lead to cancer susceptibility.

"Our work has the potential to create real, tangible benefits for the medical community," said Ruggero.

The researchers focused on a multi-protein unit known as mTOR, which stands for the "mammalian target of rapamycin." mTOR controls several important processes in mammalian cells, including cell survival and proliferation.

One of the most significant of these processes is the production of proteins within a cell, the control of which is known as translational control. mTOR integrates information about the cell's nutritional and energy needs, and prompts the cell to manufacture key proteins for cell growth. Cancer cells exploit this signal for their own growth.

According to the researchers, when the cells in the body lose the ability to control mTOR activity, mTOR is considered "hyperactivated."

This hyperactivation causes protein synthesis rates to climb. Cells begin to proliferate without limits and simultaneously become immortal, all of which leads to tumour formation.

The findings are featured as the cover story in the March 16, 2010 issue of the scientific journal Cancer Cell. (ANI)

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