Jadhav thrashed Congress-Nationalist Congress Party (NCP) candidate Priscilla Kadam by securing 114 votes, while her contender bagged just 96.
Congress' hope to bag the coveted post was shattered when seven corporators of the Samajwadi Party (SP) boycotted the elections.
Sena also got an extra edge as six corporators of the Maharashtra Navnirman Sena (MNS) abstained from voting.
This is the second time a woman was elected through voting in the 227-member Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai.
Jadhav will be succeeding Shubha Raul who has enjoyed a two-and-half year mayoral term.