Howler monkeys reject vegetarianism, start eating eggs

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London, October 1 (ANI): Scientists have captured on camera wild howler monkeys raiding chicken coops and eating bird's eggs, which is a surprising find as the species are thought to be exclusively vegetarian.

According to a report by BBC News, the egg-eating behaviour has evolved among black and gold howlers living in forest in Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil.

Despite it being one of the best studied monkeys in the New World, this is the first time the species has been recorded eating animal matter.

"Howlers are believed to be strictly vegetarian. Their diet is based on leaves and fruits, although other vegetable matter, such as petioles, pulvini, buds, flowers, stems, twigs and bark can also be eaten," said Dr Julio Bicca-Marques of the Primatology Research Group at the PUC/RS Bioscience Faculty in Porto Alegre, Brazil.

Howler monkeys are also known to ingest occasional arthropods such as beetles, but the monkeys do this inadvertently as they gather plant material.

However, in 2005, Helissandra Prates, a student of Dr Bicca-Marques, observed two juvenile black and gold howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) licking the interior of a dove's nest at Estancia Casa Branca, a 2 ha orchard forest in Alegrete.

The nest contained a broken egg shell.

She later found evidence of egg remains in howler monkey dung collected from the orchard floor.

Then in 2007, Muhle, another of Dr Bicca-Marques's students, witnessed howler monkeys eating birds' eggs at a separate woodland site at Beco Xavier.

Over an eight-month period, she recorded 19 separate instances of egg predation by a group of five individuals.This study was responsible for the uncontestable confirmation that black and gold howlers monkeys can act as nest predators and eat birds eggs," said Dr Bicca-Marques.

All these later cases involved chicken eggs, which the monkeys stole from a chicken coop.

While all five monkeys were seen to enter and investigate the coop, most of the eggs were actually eaten by a single subadult male.

"We were very surprised because Alouatta is the most studied New World primate genus in the wild and there is not a single observation of intentional ingestion of animal matter in the literature," said Dr Bicca-Marques.

The researchers suspect that the monkeys are varying their diet in response to environmental conditions, particularly where a high density of monkeys lives among forests or orchards of low diversity.

"Eggs should be a surrogate supplementary source of protein when few plant species compose the available menu," said Dr Bicca-arques. (ANI)

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