Washington, September 20 (ANI): An Missouri University of Science and Technology expert has created a highly efficient wastewater system "in a box" that requires low power and low maintenance.
Dr. Jianmin Wang, a professor of civil, architectural and environmental engineering, has built the system by repurposing a shipping container.
Built from weathering steel, these containers are designed to be tough, and can be dropped on site by helicopters.
The system's scorecard is so good that it could be deployed anywhere - from small, rural communities to forward operating bases, like those in Iraq or Afghanistan.
Currently, the typical 600-soldier forward operating base requires a daily convoy of 22 trucks to supply the base with fuel or water and dispose of wastewater and solid waste.
Since the novel system has few mechanical parts and a small footprint, Wang considers it to be ideal for military use.
"Currently, human wastes are typically burned in burn pits, and the wastewater is usually hauled away and dumped by local contractors. This results in high costs, security issues, potential health risks, negative environmental impacts to the hosting country and a potential negative image," Wang says.
"Moreover, almost all fresh water used in the camp - including water for drinking, bathing, showering, laundry, car washing and toilet flushing - is from outside sources in the form of bottled and surface water. A deployable and easy-to-use water reclamation station, which transforms wastewater into reusable water within the base, would improve the base environment, security, soldiers' health, stewardship of foreign lands and concurrently reduce cost and fresh water demand from off-base sources," Wang adds.
Current wastewater treatment options include membrane bioreactor, activated sludge, fixed film or on-site septic systems.
Just like these methods, the novel system uses microorganisms to break down the organic pollutants.
Membrane bioreactor, activated sludge process and fixed-film process have been built using standard shipping containers, too. But that's where the similarities end.
The membrane bioreactor process, while similar in size and quality of effluent produced, has extremely higher energy and maintenance costs, and up to 10 times more expensive parts.
"The fixed-film system, as developed by other companies, needs to be monitored and controlled constantly. Plus our system is much smaller than their systems - only 20-30 percent of the size of these systems for the same treatment capacity. Our system does not use any media, which significantly reduces construction and maintenance cost," Wang says.
Dubbed a baffled bioreactor (BBR), Wang's system modifies the conventional activated sludge process by using baffles to create a maintenance-free intermediate settling chamber for sludge return.
It uses off-the-shelf, low-tech parts to treat wastewater at a level that exceeds federal standards. The water can be used for non-contact applications, including toilet flushing and car washing.
The project might have been focused on military needs, Wang insists that the small, low-maintenance and low-power system makes sense for small communities, mobile home parks, motels and even facilities in remote areas, such as highway rest areas and camps.
The U.S. Army has given Wang the green light to demonstrate a full-scale, company-size water reclamation station for advanced wastewater and non-potable reuse.
During this project, he will also explore the feasibility of producing potable water from wastewater in emergency situations.
"A lesson learned from Hurricane Katrina is that untreated sewage can cause many health and psychological problems for displaced people. The transportable, modular baffled reactor units could even be deployed to regions where natural disasters occur to quickly prevent untreated wastewater discharge and improve hygiene," Wang says. (ANI)