Paris, Dec 19 (ANI): With Venus Express making the first detection of an atmospheric loss process on the planet's day-side, scientists have come closer to understanding where did all the water on Venus vanished, which is suspected to have once been as abundant as on Earth.
The spacecraft's magnetometer instrument (MAG) detected the unmistakable signature of hydrogen gas being stripped from the day-side.
"This is a process that was believed to be happening at Venus but this is the first time we measured it," said Magda Delva, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Graz, who leads the investigation.
Thanks to its carefully chosen orbit, Venus Express is strategically positioned to investigate this process. The spacecraft travels in a highly elliptical path sweeping over the poles of the planet.
Water is a key molecule on Earth because it makes life possible.
With Earth and Venus approximately the same size, and having formed at the same time, astronomers believe that both planets likely began with similar amounts of the precious liquid.
Today, however, the proportions on each planet are extremely different. Earth's atmosphere and oceans contain 100,000 times the total amount of water on Venus.
In spite of the low concentration of water on Venus, Delva and colleagues found that some 2x1024 hydrogen nuclei, a constituent atom of the water molecule, were being lost every second from Venus's day-side.
Last year, the Analyser of Space Plasma and Energetic Atoms (ASPERA) on board Venus Express showed that there was a great loss of hydrogen and oxygen on the night-side.
Roughly twice as many hydrogen atoms as oxygen atoms were escaping.
Because water is made of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom, the observed escape indicates that water is being broken up in the atmosphere of Venus.
The Sun not only emits light and heat into space, it constantly spews out solar wind, a stream of charged particles. This solar wind carries electrical and magnetic fields throughout the Solar System and 'blows' past the planets.
Unlike Earth, Venus does not generate a magnetic field. This is significant because Earth's magnetic field protects its atmosphere from the solar wind.
At Venus, however, the solar wind strikes the upper atmosphere and carries off particles into space.
According to planetary scientists, the planet has lost part of its water in this way over the four-and-a-half-thousand million years since the planet's birth. (ANI)