Two of the latest launches took place at either end of the country, one from the Barents Sea, east of Norway, and the other from north of Japan.
Mr Medvedev watched the third one on land at the Plisetsk space centre, in north-west Russia.
The Topol missile was launched by Russia's Strategic Missile Force. The president announced that the missile had successfully hit the target at the Kura test range in the Russian Far East.
Topol (SS-25 Sickle) is a single-warhead ICBM, approximately the same size and shape as the US Minuteman ICBM. The first Topol missiles became operational in 1985.
Furious at the US missile defence plans in Europe and moves to expand the US-led NATO alliance towards Russian borders, the Kremlin has been flexing its military muscle, unseen even during the Cold War-era.