Paris, August 24 : The European Space Agency (ESA) is about to launch the most sophisticated mission ever to investigate the Earth's surface, core, and, gravitational field, with unprecedented resolution and accuracy.
Known as the Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE), the satellite will be placed onto a low altitude near sun-synchronous orbit by a Russian Rockot vehicle launched from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome in Northern Russia, some 800 km north of Moscow.
Lift-off is scheduled to take place on Wednesday, September 10.
The launcher is operated by Eurockot Launch Services, a joint venture between EADS Astrium and the Khrunichev Space Centre (Russia).
ESA's 1-tonne spacecraft carries a set of six state-of-the-art high-sensitivity accelerometers to measure the components of the gravity field along all three axes.
The data collected will provide a high-resolution map of the geoid (the reference surface of the planet) and of gravitational anomalies.
Such a map will not only greatly improve our knowledge and understanding of the Earth's internal structure, but will also be used as a much better reference for ocean and climate studies, including sea-level changes, oceanic circulation and ice caps dynamics survey.
To make this mission possible, ESA, its industrial partners and the science community had to overcome an impressive technical challenge by designing a satellite that will orbit the Earth close enough to gather high-accuracy gravitational data while being able to filter out disturbances caused by the remaining traces of the atmosphere in low Earth orbit (at an altitude of only 260 km).
This resulted in a slender 5-m-long arrowhead shape for aerodynamics with low power ion thrusters to compensate for the atmospheric drag.
GOCE is the first Core Mission of the Earth Explorer programme undertaken by ESA in 1999 to foster research on the Earth's atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere and interior, on their interactions and on the impact of human activities on these natural processes.
It will be the first in a whole series of Earth Explorer missions with five launches to take place within the next two years.