Washington, June 19 : Scientists have resolved a longstanding paradox in the plant world, which could lead to far more accurate predictions of global climate change.
The paradox centers on puzzling aspects of the nitrogen cycle in temperate and tropical forests.
Defying laws of supply and demand, trees capable of extracting nitrogen directly from the atmosphere (a process called nitrogen fixation) often thrive where it is readily available in the soil, but not where it is in short supply.
Nitrogen is essential to all life on Earth, and determines how much carbon dioxide ecosystems can absorb from the atmosphere, according to UC Davis assistant professor Benjamin Houlton, who tackled the problem with colleagues.
"You would expect that nitrogen-fixing species would have a competitive advantage in ecosystems where nitrogen is in low supply, but not where nitrogen is abundant, because fixation is energetically very costly to an organism," said Houlton, who is the lead author of the paper.
But in mature temperate forests, where the soils have limited amounts of nitrogen, nitrogen-fixing tree species are scarce. And in the tropical lowland forests, which are nitrogen-rich, nitrogen-fixing trees often are abundant.
Houlton and his collaborators found the explanation lies in the key roles played by two other factors: temperature and the abundance of another key element, phosphorus.
Temperature, they determined, affects the activity of a nitrogen-fixing enzyme called nitrogenase. In cooler, temperate climates, more of the enzyme is needed to fix a given amount of nitrogen.
This higher cost would offset the benefit of nitrogen fixation in temperate forests, despite low-nitrogen soils.
In tropical forests, it's the link between nitrogen and phosphorus that explains the abundance of nitrogen-fixing species.
According to Houlton, many tropical forest soils are severely depleted in phosphorus, even where nitrogen is relatively abundant.
"The extra nitrogen added to the soil by nitrogen-fixers helps mobilize phosphorus, making it easier for roots to absorb," said Houlton. "That stimulates the growth of these plant species and puts them at a competitive advantage, despite the energetic cost of nitrogen fixation," he added.