The brain is 'hard-wired' to care about social status

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Washington, Apr 24 : Individuals who get a buzz from climbing the social ladder also feel more pain and stress when they tumble to a lower position, says a new study, which suggests that human brains are hard-wired to care about social status.

Scientists based the findings after identifying a brain circuitry associated with social status through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanner.

The researchers at the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) of the National Institutes of Health found that different brain areas are activated when a person moves up or down in a pecking order - or simply views perceived social superiors or inferiors.

Circuitry activated by important events responded to a potential change in hierarchical status as much as it did to winning money.

Brain image on back of card illustrates neural activity elicited when viewing a person of superior status. "Our position in social hierarchies strongly influences motivation as well as physical and mental health," said NIMH Director Thomas R Insel, M.D.

"This first glimpse into how the brain processes that information advances our understanding of an important factor that can impact public health," he added.

Prior studies have shown that social status strongly predicts health. Animals chronically stressed by their hierarchical position have high rates of cardiovascular and depression/anxiety-like syndromes.

A classic study of British civil servants found that the lower one ranked, the higher the odds for developing cardiovascular disease and dying early.

Lower social rank likely compromises health through psychological effects, such as by limiting control over one's life and interactions with others. However, in hierarchies that allow for more upward mobility, those at the top who stand to lose their positions can have higher risk for stress-related illness. Yet little is known about how the human brain translates such factors into health risk.

To find out, the researchers created an artificial social hierarchy in which 72 participants played an interactive computer game for money. T

They were assigned a status that they were told was based on their playing skill. In fact, the game outcomes were predetermined and the other "players" simulated by computer.

While their brain activity was monitored by fMRI, participants intermittently saw pictures and scores of an inferior and a superior "player" they thought. Although they knew the perceived players' scores would not affect their own outcomes or reward -and were instructed to ignore them - participants' brain activity and behavior were highly influenced by their position in the implied hierarchy.

"The processing of hierarchical information seems to be hard-wired, occurring even outside of an explicitly competitive environment, underscoring how important it is for us," said Caroline Zink, Ph.D, the study's co-author.

Key study findings included - the area that signals an event's importance, called the ventral striatum, responded to the prospect of a rise or fall in rank as much as it did to the monetary reward, confirming the high value accorded social status.

Just viewing a superior human "player," as opposed to a perceived inferior one or a computer, activated an area near the front of the brain that appears to size people up - making interpersonal judgments and assessing social status. A circuit involving the mid-front part of the brain that processes the intentions and motives of others and emotion processing areas deep in the brain activated when the hierarchy became unstable, allowing for upward and downward mobility.

Performing better than the superior "player" activated areas higher and toward the front of the brain controlling action planning, while performing worse than an inferior "player" activated areas lower in the brain associated with emotional pain and frustration.

The more positive the mood experienced by participants while at the top of an unstable hierarchy, the stronger was activity in this emotional pain circuitry when they viewed an outcome that threatened to move them down in status. In other words, people who felt more joy when they won also felt more pain when they lost.

The study is published in the journal Neuron.

ANI

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